Distillation techniques:


 3 The history off the cooling system:

The cooling system was developped in different  stadia, not always in a logical way, since nature was used as a exemple for the different devices...
depending on some believe systems...


Some very extravagant systems were developped...


Some old illustrations show the evolution of the techniques:



"Modern" cooling systems (end of the  19 th Century)


Cooling systems of two Hydro diffusion alembics: the steam comes from above and is cooled through the rectangular tubes (cold water  passes through the tubes)


Classic cooling systems.


     Cooling systems for small lab or home distillation alembics..        


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